Advanced Waterflooding in Carbonate Reservoirs
Price to be provided upon request
Dates to be agreed with the customer
Instructor(-s): Pavel Bedrikovetsky
About the course
The course provides an overview of reservoir engineering challenges of waterflooding in carbonate reservoirs. The students will obtainknowledge necessary for cost-effective improvement of waterflooding in carbonate fields.
I BASIC WATERFLOODING
1.1 Reservoir physics (capillary phenomena, relative permeability, capillary pressure, reactions between water and CaCO3 and CaSO4, micro-fracturing, imbibition)
1.2 Mathematical model for waterflooding in porous and fractured-porous reservoirs. Black-oil model. 3-D reservoir simulation. Analytical prediction of 1-D waterflooding in porous and fractured-porous reservoirs.
1.3 Upscaling. Fractional flow in heterogeneous reservoirs. Exercise: recovery factor calculations.
1.4 Routine laboratory studies of waterflooding. Advanced coreflood tests using porous and fractured-porous samples. Exercise: calculations fractional flow and relative permeability from lab data
II SMART & LOW-SALINITY WATERFLOODING IN CARBONATES
2.1 Capillary phenomena and wettability alteration during LowSal flooding. Chemical reactions. Rock dissolution in water
2.2 Physics of fines mobilisation, migration and permeability damage. Laboratory study
2.3 Reservoir simulation of low salinity waterflooding in porous and fractured-porous reservoirs.
2.4 Analytical models for low salinity waterflooding in porous and fractured-porous reservoirs. Exercise: comparison of normal and low salinity waterflooding.
III INJECTION AND PRODUCTION WELLS
3.1 Injectivity decline in waterflood projects in carbonate reservoirs: deep bed filtration; external cake formation; cake erosion. Mathematical modelling.
3.2 Laboratory studies of injectivity. Field cases from North Sea (UK, Denmark) and Oman. Taking advantage of injectivity damage in horizontal wells for improved sweep efficiency
3.3 Effects of fines migration on injection and production wells in carbonate rocks
3.4 2 Field cases of waterflooding: well behaviour, production history, reservoir studies